Among thousands of infections and diseases that can affect the female reproductive system, some cause doubts and strangeness when hearing about it, especially when the diagnosis is received, as is the case of pelvic inflammatory disease. In this article, we will clarify what it is about, what are the main causes, symptoms and treatments indicated for this disease that haunts women.
What is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?
Pelvic inflammatory disease also recognized by the acronym DIP is an infection considered serious that affects the female reproductive system, including uterus , ovaries and tubes . It begins in the area of the vagina and with its progression reaches the other organs, affecting the entire pelvic region and in its most advanced stage, spreading through the abdominal area. If not treated properly and in time, it can cause irreversible damage to women, including infertility.
This disease usually affects younger women and sexually active adolescents, who have a very large exchange of sexual partners and do not have the habit of using condoms during sexual intercourse and still practice the vaginal shower , washing the inside of the vagina in a constant.
PID is considered a sexually transmitted disease, but it can also occur due to the patient having endometriosis . Pelvic inflammatory disease is classified according to the degree and severity of the patient.
- Classification stage 1 – inflammation that affects the endometrium and fallopian tubes, without reaching the peritoneum area;
- Classification stage 2 – inflammation that affects the fallopian tubes and also the area of the peritoneum;
- Classification stage 3 – inflammation that affects the fallopian tubes and obstructs the tubal area causing an intact abscess in the area;
- Classification stage 4 – inflammation with abscess in the ruptured ovarian tube or presence of pus in the abdominal cavity.
Symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease can occur quietly, subtly and often asymptomatically, which makes diagnosis difficult and poses greater risks to women. The absence of symptoms does not reduce the severity of the disease, much less the chances of it getting worse. For this and other reasons, it is essential that the woman maintains regular visits to the gynecologist for routine exams and that she knows her body and all its functioning very well to observe any different sign or symptom.
Among the main symptoms to be observed by women who have pelvic inflammatory disease, are:
- Pain in the lower abdomen when being touched;
- Vaginal bleeding outside the menstrual period;
- Bleeding after sexual intercourse;
- Yellowish or greenish vaginal discharge with strong odor;
- Pain during sexual intercourse;
- Fever of 38⁰C or more.
Other symptoms have also been seen in women with PID, including feeling sick, chills, severe pain in the lower back. If you notice any of the symptoms, seek immediate attention or your gynecologist as soon as possible. The delay in diagnosis and proper treatment allows the microorganisms responsible for the disease to continue to multiply rapidly and affect tissues that are increasingly deep in the reproductive system.
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Main Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Some situations and diseases can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, so it can also be considered a sexually transmitted disease. But it is not only through unprotected sex that it can happen. Among the main causes in general are:
- Unprotected sexual intercourse with several sexual partners;
- Sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia;
- Contamination during childbirth;
- Use of contaminated objects for masturbation;
- Endometrial biopsy or during uterine curettage procedure;
Therefore, it is concluded that pelvic inflammatory disease is caused by specific bacteria in contact with the vagina. These bacteria proliferate quickly reaching other tissues of the female reproductive system, causing symptoms or not, but which can be diagnosed through routine gynecological examinations .
The diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease is not always easy and quick, due to the absence of symptoms. But it is possible to detect it through blood tests and imaging tests such as ultrasound of the pelvis and a transvaginal. In blood tests it is possible to detect the disease by analyzing protein C or the speed of elevated globular sedimentation. The presence of chlamydia and gonococcus diseases are also strong indications.
Treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
After closing the diagnosis of the gynecologist through evaluative examinations, treatment should be started. Treatment is based on oral or injectable antibiotics that are administered intramuscularly for a duration of 14 days . In addition to medication to combat the disease, some precautions and recommendations are necessary, which must be strictly followed, such as:
- Maintain rest during the treatment days;
- Not having sex, even with a condom during treatment;
- If IUDs are used, provisional removal is recommended;
During the treatment of the patient it is recommended that the partner or sexual partners be treated as well, even if they have no symptoms. The partner’s treatment will avoid the patient’s recontamination through sexual intercourse after the end of the treatment.
If left untreated, pelvic inflammatory disease can cause serious and often irreversible disorders to the patient. Infertility is one of them and the risk of ectopic pregnancy, where the embryo is fixed outside the uterus, are possibilities for women who suffer from IPD.
My name is Dr. Alexis Hart I am 38 years old, I am the mother of 3 beautiful children! Different ages, different phases 16 years, 12 years and 7 years. In love with motherhood since always, I found it difficult to make my dreams come true, and also some more after I was already a mother.
Since I imagined myself as a mother, in my thoughts everything seemed to be much easier and simpler than it really was, I expected to get pregnant as soon as I wished, but it wasn’t that simple. The first pregnancy was smooth, but my daughter’s birth was very troubled. Joana was born in 2002 with a weight of 2930kg and 45cm, from a very peaceful cesarean delivery but she had already been born with congenital pneumonia due to a broken bag not treated with antibiotics even before delivery.