It is very common to hear people talking about diabetes, after all it is a disease that is reaching more and more people all over the world, including children, young people and adults. According to research by the World Health Organization (WHO), an average of 422 million diabetic people were registered worldwide. In Brazil alone, a brief WHO survey in partnership with IBGE, registered 13 million diabetic Brazilians. However, what the vast majority of people are unaware of, is that diabetes is divided into several types and can present different symptoms as well as the necessary treatment to be differentiated and also the risks.
Little is heard about the name diabetes mellitus, so let’s clarify what it is about because it raises a lot of doubts. Diabetes mellitus is actually nothing more, nothing less than diabetes itself, we can classify it as “the origin” or the scientific name used. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by an increase and uncontrolled blood glucose, known as hyperglycemia.
What is Diabetes?
It can occur for two reasons: due to problems in insulin production or due to the body’s resistance to insulin, both produced by the pancreas, also known as beta cells. The main function of insulin in the body is to allow glucose to enter the body’s cells and thus be used and administered by bodily functioning, including the transformation of energy. With its altered function it results in an accumulation of glucose in the blood resulting in hyperglycemia.
Types of Diabetes Mellitus
We already understand what diabetes mellitus is about, but as we mentioned, it can occur for two reasons and also for some patient health factors. When we talk about diabetes, we automatically relate to the problem in the pancreas and the control of the body’s glucose, but it is necessary to know that it is divided into types, which determines its severity , its different treatment and even the symptoms that the patient feels when it is bearer of it.
Type 1 Diabetes (DM 1)
Considered the type of diabetes that affects a smaller number of patients worldwide. Diabetes DM 1, manifests itself mainly in childhood or adolescence , but the chance of occurring in adulthood is not exempt either. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce the amount of insulin needed by the body or simply does not produce anything. This is because the beta cells that are responsible for the production of insulin in the body are being destroyed with no chance of reversal.
In this case, it is necessary for the patient to receive injectable doses of insulin in order to be able to control blood glucose, besides, of course, following a healthy and balanced diet and still practicing physical exercises to ensure control and a healthy life for the patient. Its cause is related to genetic inheritance in conjunction with external factors, such as viral infections that can affect the functioning of the body.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes DM 1
Diabetes is usually diagnosed by examining fasting blood glucose, where the amount of blood glucose is analyzed. But, even before diagnosing it is possible to
observe some very evident symptoms that the body provides that something different is happening, so be aware of the signs.
- Increased urge to urinate;
- Constant thirst;
- Constant hunger;
- Changes in mood;
Other signs that are observed in patients with type 1 diabetes DM 1 are excessive and rapid weight loss, even if they eat a lot and with a super caloric diet. Crisis of nervousness and nausea and vomiting without explanation. These symptoms usually occur in an evident way, which facilitates the diagnosis. However, in case of late diagnosis, the cells of the body, as they do not have the necessary glucose to spend on body energy, begin to use fat and muscles to generate energy . When it reaches this stage, ketone bodies are produced and come into contact with the bloodstream, causing a chemical diabetic ketoacidosis, aggravating the patient’s case and leading to a coma.
Type 2 Diabetes (DM 2)
Considered the most common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes (DM 2), can affect people of any age group, but it is more common in adults over 40 years of age and with obesity and physical inactivity. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas continues to function normally and produce insulin, but the body is altered and the cells become resistant to its action. But there are also cases, where the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to supply the body’s needs.
The test that diagnoses type 2 diabetes DM 2 is that of fasting glycemia, where blood glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) are checked, which is the fraction of hemoglobin or protein found within the red blood cell that has glucose binding. In this exam it is possible to check the changes of at least 90 days before the exam, this is because this is the lifespan of the red blood cells, where the hemoglobins are incorporating glucose and showing the change in blood sugar.
If the rates are changed, the glycated hemoglobin test will show an average of the hemoglobin concentrations in the blood in the last period, indicating whether you have type 2 diabetes or not. The reference values are:
- Healthy people: between 4.5% and 5.7%;
- Patients diagnosed with already controlled diabetes: below 7%;
- Abnormal values in the limit: 5.8% and 6.4%;
- Diabetic: greater than or equal to 6.5%
In this type of diabetes, the use of insulin to control is not indicated in all cases, but changes in important habits to control diabetes and the patient being able to have a healthy and normal life. The practice of physical exercises at least 3x a week is the first on the list and considered essential to the treatment. Through physical exercises it is possible to control blood sugar levels, as well as act on weight loss.
Food should be limited to the consumption of carbohydrates such as bread and pasta and sweets in general, as they have a high glycemic index. It is necessary to consume a balanced diet and prioritizing the consumption of vegetables, fruits and vegetables. Manage the consumption of alcoholic beverages, cut cigarettes and control stress. The treatment of diabetes type 2 DM 2, is a set of factors and care that will lead the patient to be able to control glycemic levels. The ideal is to do a specialized follow-up and, if necessary, adjust to the use of medications or insulin recommended by the doctor.
Does Diabetes Mellitus Affect Fertility?
Among the events that diabetes can affect in the lives of men and women, fertility is unfortunately on the list. The lack of treatment and adequate control of the disease can lead to several other problems in the patient’s health and life. Some may not take the treatment seriously, until they know they can become impotent and only then, understand the importance of the treatment.
Diabetes is related to several changes in the body, including cardiovascular and psychological, and with that, the reproductive system can also be affected. When diabetes is out of control, patients have decreased libido and orgasmic dysfunction , even providing erectile dysfunction. It has also been observed in some cases, the occurrence of retrograde ejaculation, where the sperm instead of leaving the urethra is directed to the bladder. In the case of women, the dysfunctions affect the hormonal part, increasing the chances of miscarriage and greater difficulty in conception.
But all of these issues can be prevented with proper control of diabetes and with the patient following the care instructions to lead a healthier life. If you want to get pregnant, with diabetes properly controlled, you can start to give extra strength to your fertility.
It is possible to enhance male fertility through specialized vitamins to strengthen sperm, improve DNA and increase their mobility, such as the vitamin ViriFerti . You can purchase it here in our online store.
To give extra strength and improve pleasure during sexual intercourse, use fertility-friendly lubricating gel FamiGel . In addition to improving vaginal lubrication, it plays a faithful role in fertile mucus, facilitating the arrival of sperm to the egg. Buy here in our store.
My name is Dr. Alexis Hart I am 38 years old, I am the mother of 3 beautiful children! Different ages, different phases 16 years, 12 years and 7 years. In love with motherhood since always, I found it difficult to make my dreams come true, and also some more after I was already a mother.
Since I imagined myself as a mother, in my thoughts everything seemed to be much easier and simpler than it really was, I expected to get pregnant as soon as I wished, but it wasn’t that simple. The first pregnancy was smooth, but my daughter’s birth was very troubled. Joana was born in 2002 with a weight of 2930kg and 45cm, from a very peaceful cesarean delivery but she had already been born with congenital pneumonia due to a broken bag not treated with antibiotics even before delivery.