Trichomoniasis in Pregnancy – Understand the Dangers

In prenatal care , it is common for many women to complain about vulvovaginitis, which are infectious diseases that affect the female genital region. Among them, candidiasis , bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis stand out. Scientific research on vulvovaginitis seeks to know whether, in pregnancy, the treatment is effective to prevent premature birth and other risks for the mother and baby. Understand now about the case of trichomoniasis, classified as an STD – sexually transmitted disease.

What is Trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis is an infection caused by a protozoan , which is a parasitic microorganism called Trichomonas vaginalis . It can stay in the cervix, vagina and / or urethra, and its main form of transmission is through sex.

The problem is that the disease can be asymptomatic , that is, it does not show symptoms. However, some characteristic symptoms may appear, such as, mainly, a greenish yellow vaginal discharge . The diagnosis is made by the gynecologist, based on the result of the examination of the mucus collected from the vagina.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms may not exist in up to half of cases of Trichomoniasis, which makes it more difficult to identify the disease. But when the woman feels them, the following are usually reported:

  • Irritation in the genital and perineum region;
  • Pain or burning when urinating;
  • Pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse;
  • Itching in the genital region;
  • Greenish yellow, foamy and bad smelling discharge .

Risk Factors for Developing Trichomoniasis

As the transmission of trichomoniasis occurs through sexual intercourse, there are several risk factors possibly related to the sexual life of patients with symptoms. Among the most common, we can mention the following:

  • Having unprotected sex with several different individuals;
  • Do not use barrier contraceptive methods (such as condoms), which protect the body from sexually transmitted diseases and not only prevent pregnancy;
  • Have a previous history of STDs.

Do Men Know They Have Trichomoniasis?

Unfortunately, there is no way to know , without exams, if your partner is sick and can transmit trichomoniasis to you. Most men do not notice any changes when they are infected, only a small portion of them have urethritis (inflammation in the urethra).

This causes many to refuse to go to the doctor and even to undergo treatment, which contributes to spreading the disease more to women.

Forms of Treatment

For the treatment of trichomoniasis during pregnancy, doctors generally prescribe a single-dose, oral, imidazole remedy called metronidazole . It is also used to treat other vulvovaginitis, such as bacterial vaginosis, with different doses.

In high-risk pregnancies, however, the use of metronidazole may not be recommended, deserving caution – especially in the second trimester . Some research has already linked the incidence of the disease in the second trimester of pregnancy with a more than three-fold increase in the chance that the child will later be identified as mentally disabled.

Another fundamental thing is that the sexual partner is also treated at the same time, so that the disease does not recur. Treatment for trichomoniasis has been using this method for a long time and is successful in 90% of cases.

Contrary cases are rare, but resistance to this allopathic therapy can be resolved with higher doses of the substance or replaced with other imidazole remedies. It is worth noting that, in cases of failure, the main causes are not related to the failure of the medication, but mainly with untreated partners and with incomplete treatment .

Consequences of Trichomoniasis in Pregnancy

Trichomoniasis in pregnancy has an incidence of around 3 to 5%. For this reason, this sexually transmitted disease (STD) is considered to be of high prevalence. When it occurs in women during pregnancy, it can be a risk factor for an intellectual deficit in their child , according to several studies. In addition, it can cause infection of the newborn’s respiratory tract.

Research in North Carolina showed that women with trichomoniasis during pregnancy are significantly more likely to have a child with low intellectual development (HR 1.28).

However, the researchers speak of this situation when it is associated with a “ premature rupture of membranes ” (when the water bag , of amniotic fluid, is broken), with the premature birth and the low weight of the child at birth. These conditions and the disease can be avoided, however, once you are infected with trichomoniasis, treatment does not decrease the risks of premature birth.

In any case, it is recommended to treat pregnant women who show symptoms of trichomoniasis at any time during pregnancy. In asymptomatic cases, the decision on what to do should be seen on a case-by-case basis.

See Also: Pregnancy Discharge – What is Normal or Not?

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My name is Dr. Alexis Hart I am 38 years old, I am the mother of 3 beautiful children! Different ages, different phases 16 years, 12 years and 7 years. In love with motherhood since always, I found it difficult to make my dreams come true, and also some more after I was already a mother.

Since I imagined myself as a mother, in my thoughts everything seemed to be much easier and simpler than it really was, I expected to get pregnant as soon as I wished, but it wasn’t that simple. The first pregnancy was smooth, but my daughter’s birth was very troubled. Joana was born in 2002 with a weight of 2930kg and 45cm, from a very peaceful cesarean delivery but she had already been born with congenital pneumonia due to a broken bag not treated with antibiotics even before delivery.

Dr. Alexis Hart

My name is Dr. Alexis Hart I am 38 years old, I am the mother of 3 beautiful children! Different ages, different phases 16 years, 12 years and 7 years. In love with motherhood since always, I found it difficult to make my dreams come true, and also some more after I was already a mother.Since I imagined myself as a mother, in my thoughts everything seemed to be much easier and simpler than it really was, I expected to get pregnant as soon as I wished, but it wasn’t that simple. The first pregnancy was smooth, but my daughter’s birth was very troubled. Joana was born in 2002 with a weight of 2930kg and 45cm, from a very peaceful cesarean delivery but she had already been born with congenital pneumonia due to a broken bag not treated with antibiotics even before delivery.

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