Every woman goes through transformations from the girl to adolescence phase and with them the body adapts itself until menarche (the first menstruation) arrives. Menarche is the beginning of the woman’s menstrual period and this period is divided into three phases that will last until the arrival of menopause where menstruation has stopped and the body stops preparing to receive a possible pregnancy.
These three phases that occur through hormonal changes are repeated naturally every month and when menstruation occurs, it can last around 3 to 7 days. The menstrual period considered normal lasts 28 days , but it is common for this period to vary between 23 and 35 days, being considered irregular. In the first years after menarche it is very common that the menstrual period is not yet properly regulated and this can take an average of 3 years to regularize. This is because this whole process depends on the hormones produced in the ovary, hypothalamus and pituitary gland and until they can function in a rhythmic way it can take some time.
Some women may have their menstrual periods unregulated for their entire lives, which ends up making it difficult when they get pregnant because they are not able to identify their fertile period for certain, except for the signs that the body itself gives, such as breast tenderness and transparent discharge. compared to an egg white that is a sign of ovulation . One way to regulate menstruation and thus be sure of the days that you will be menstruating is through the use of contraceptives, an option that is ruled out for those who wish to become pregnant during this period as the method inhibits ovulation.
Stages of the Menstrual Cycle
As we have already mentioned above, the menstrual cycle occurs in three phases: the follicular phase, the ovulatory phase and the luteal phase where each exercise their natural functions until the cycle is completed and starting all over again. In the follicular phase, where it starts on the first day of menstruation and will last on average 12 days, there is an increase in the hormone FSH which is the stimulant of the follicles, which when mature become the eggs. The follicle also known as the “future egg” has surrounding cells cells responsible for the production of hormones, called granulosa. At this stage there is a great stimulus in the production of these follicles until only one dominates and causes the others to stop their functions naturally.
In the ovulatory phase, the follicle that has become dominant begins to produce high levels of estrogen, which induces the production of the LH hormone that is primarily responsible for ovulation, this period lasts an average of 8 days and its peak day is at 14 day (in this case on a 28-day menstrual cycle). During ovulation, the egg will release to the fallopian tube where it will wait to be fertilized by a sperm.
In the luteal phase , the granulosa cells, which now no longer have an egg inside, are called the corpus luteum, this process lasts an average of 10 days. The corpus luteum is maintained through the production of the LH hormone and the production of progesterone begins, which starts with the second hormone for the production of LH which begins to stop its functions and after an average of 14 days of ovulation, occurs during menstruation.
To better understand the hormones and their functions during the menstrual cycle , we will place each responsible and where it is located. For example, the hormone that releases gonadotropin or GnRh is produced by the hypothalamus that is located in the brain. The follicle stimulating hormone also called FSH is produced by the pituitary gland which is also located in the brain, as well as the hormone responsible for luteinizing or LH which is also produced by the pituitary gland. And lastly the estrogen and progesterone that are produced by the ovaries.
See also: Why Does Menstrual Delay Happen?
My name is Dr. Alexis Hart I am 38 years old, I am the mother of 3 beautiful children! Different ages, different phases 16 years, 12 years and 7 years. In love with motherhood since always, I found it difficult to make my dreams come true, and also some more after I was already a mother.
Since I imagined myself as a mother, in my thoughts everything seemed to be much easier and simpler than it really was, I expected to get pregnant as soon as I wished, but it wasn’t that simple. The first pregnancy was smooth, but my daughter’s birth was very troubled. Joana was born in 2002 with a weight of 2930kg and 45cm, from a very peaceful cesarean delivery but she had already been born with congenital pneumonia due to a broken bag not treated with antibiotics even before delivery.