People’s organisms work in much the same way, but some differences between them are essential for treating illnesses or even when there is a pregnancy, for example. This is the case of blood typing , which can affect certain organisms, especially when procedures such as blood transfusion or when there is pregnancy are necessary.
The different types of blood that people can have depend on the type of antigen that each person’s red blood cells have. As an evolutionary issue, there are different types of blood in humans , some compatible with others and others not so much.
Developing knowledge about blood typing and compatibility between people was one of the most important steps taken by modern medicine to date, as it allowed for many other knowledge to be acquired from that.
To better understand blood types, the compatibility of each and terms such as ABO system and RH factor, we need to talk more deeply about blood typing in specific and understand how it is done and why it is so important to know about it.
Discovered by the Austrian Karl Landsteiner in the 20th century, the ABO system is able to distinguish the presence or absence of antigens A and B in people’s blood, thus determining the four existing blood types, which are:
These separations do not occur by chance . Type A bloods, for example, have antibodies that attack type B blood and the opposite also happens. Type O blood has antibodies that attack red blood cells in both type A and type B blood. Type AB does not attack either type of antigen.
In addition to the presence or absence of certain types of antigens in the blood, there is also the RH factor, which is another type of antigen in the blood. The HR system was also discovered by Karl Landsteiner and Wiener, after experiments with animals. In this way we can classify blood types into:
- A positive
- A Negative
- B Positive
- B Negative
- AB Positive
- AB Negative
- The Positive
- The Negative
There are two moments where it is essential to know the HR factor:
- When you are pregnant
- At the time of Blood Transfusion
Knowing the RH factor of both the father and the mother is of paramount importance when pregnant, as the difference between the Rh factor of the mother and the baby may end up generating fetal erythroblastosis or Rhesus disease, which causes the mother’s body create antibodies and attack the baby’s red blood cells. Fortunately, this disease can be avoided, but it is essential to know the Rh factor of the parents so that treatment can be done.
In order to perform a blood transfusion, it is also important to know the HR factor of both the person who is donating and the person who is receiving it. As we already said, each type of blood reacts differently according to the antigens it has, in addition to the RH factor. Therefore, not all types of blood are compatible for giving or receiving.
How is the Blood Typing Exam done?
The blood typing test is a common blood test done by collecting an individual’s blood sample and taken to a laboratory for analysis. A drop of blood is placed on top of a slide for each type of antigen.
From this it is possible to perceive the presence or absence of agglutination in each of them. The antibodies used are:
If there is agglutination for ANTI-A and ANTI-B, it means that the blood is AB, if it does not agglutinate in the presence of both, it means that the blood is O.
Based on blood typing tests, it is possible to know which types of blood can receive transfusions from others. This is the scheme:
- A Positivo: Can receive A Positive, A Negative, Positive and Negative blood.
- A Negative: You can receive A Negative or O Positive blood.
- B Positive: You can receive B Negative, B Positive, Negative and Positive blood.
- B Negative: You can receive B Negative and O Negative blood.
- AB Positive: You can receive all types of blood.
- AB Negative: Can receive blood A Negative, B Negative, AB Negative and O Negative.
- The Positive: Can receive blood The Negative and The Positive.
- The Negative: You can only receive your own blood type.
Although many people think that certain types of knowledge are not necessary for their lives, since science and medicine have already discovered them, it is important for anyone to understand that there are differences in people’s blood type and mainly, how these differences can affect us directly.
Having knowledge about blood typing is not simply knowing about each type of blood, but understanding the principles of procedures that we experience throughout life, such as blood transfusion, effects of the HR factor in pregnancy and various types of tests that we need to do.
See also: RH Factor: How It Can Affect Pregnancy
My name is Dr. Alexis Hart I am 38 years old, I am the mother of 3 beautiful children! Different ages, different phases 16 years, 12 years and 7 years. In love with motherhood since always, I found it difficult to make my dreams come true, and also some more after I was already a mother.
Since I imagined myself as a mother, in my thoughts everything seemed to be much easier and simpler than it really was, I expected to get pregnant as soon as I wished, but it wasn’t that simple. The first pregnancy was smooth, but my daughter’s birth was very troubled. Joana was born in 2002 with a weight of 2930kg and 45cm, from a very peaceful cesarean delivery but she had already been born with congenital pneumonia due to a broken bag not treated with antibiotics even before delivery.