When we talk about infertility, we can imagine several cases of both women and men, where some problem happened to the couple not being able to have children even without any use of contraceptives . For women, for example, diseases such as endometriosis and myoma can make women unable to reproduce and for men, it can arise from diseases such as varicocele , smoking, obesity and also azoospermia.
Most of the time, the problem with male infertility is the low production of sperm, which makes fertilization impossible. The factors for this low production to occur are many, but one of the best known is azoospermia.
What is Azoospermia?
Azoospermia is exactly the absence of sperm in a man’s semen or their low production. It can indicate a problem in the production of sperm, in their storage within the male reproductive organ, or in their distribution, that is, in their way to the man’s urethra.
A vasectomy , surgery done so that man can no longer reproduce, works in a very similar way and can be considered a kind of forced azoopsermia as the channel for the distribution of these cells is blocked in the same way. Having this condition does not necessarily mean that a man cannot reproduce , but the chances tend to be less.
Types of Azoospermia
As it is a problem that can occur in different phases of the male reproductive system, azoospermia can be classified into two types, they are:
- Obstructive azoospermia
- Non-Obstructive Azoospermia
In this type of azoospermia, the man’s sperm finds it difficult to transport . This is exactly what a vasectomy does, but it can also occur because of damage to the testicles, abnormalities in the epididymis or even through different channels.
It happens when the problem still occurs in the production of sperm . This can occur mainly due to external damage suffered by the testicles or by defects.
How is Azoospermia Diagnosed?
The diagnosis of azoospermia is made through an exam that perform an analysis of the semen , the exam is called a spermogram . Through it, the counting of the reproductive cells of the man is made and it is analyzed whether the man has or does not have some type of azoospermia, besides also being able to indicate whether or not he is capable of reproducing.
Main Causes of Azoospermia
As already mentioned, there are several causes for azoospermia to occur and, depending on each of them, the level of man’s sperm count may increase or decrease. The main causes are:
- Genetic causes
Let’s talk a little more deeply about each of these causes of azoospermia and how they affect a man’s body.
When a man has a low sperm count , one of the first things to consider is the genetic cause. Especially when it comes to non-obstructive azoospermia, this type of cause must be considered in order to have an effective treatment.
Various types of infections can cause a man’s sperm count to decrease. In particular, infections caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea , for example, contribute to the occurrence of some type of azoospermia.
Another factor that can cause azoospermia are traumas suffered by man throughout his life in his genital organ. These traumas can be purposeful, such as the aforementioned vasectomy, which causes forced azoospermia with the will of the man, but there are also other types of traumas such as cancer and chemotherapy that end up causing azoospermia in men.
Although it is not exactly a cause, it is important to mention that there is idiopathic azoospermia, which is one in which the cause for this phenomenon to happen is unknown . Although the cases are rare, they do exist and doctors have been researching new factors that can cause azoospermia.
In order to carry out the treatment of azoospermia, it is necessary that each case be analyzed independently to understand what are the necessary measures. In many cases, the man has sperm, but he has some kind of obstruction that prevents them from passing.
In such cases, microsurgery in which sperm are taken directly from the testicles can be done. In this way, an artificial insemination can be done without any kind of problem.
In cases of non-obstructive azoospermia, several tests must be performed in order to know the cause of this condition. Through the results of the exams, it is possible to check if the man has a chance of reproducing and what is the best type of treatment for each specific case.
The dream of almost every couple is to have children and start a family. This is part of our society and our condition as human beings, nothing unusual. When something happens that could prevent reproduction from happening, many people end up despairing and not knowing what to do.
It is important to remember that there are several alternatives , that azoospermia does not always cause infertility in men and that there are some types of treatments and surgeries that can solve the couple’s problems without major concerns. In cases like this, the ideal is to remain calm and seek the best treatment for your dream to be realized, there is almost always a solution.
See also: Male Impotence – Causes and Treatments
My name is Dr. Alexis Hart I am 38 years old, I am the mother of 3 beautiful children! Different ages, different phases 16 years, 12 years and 7 years. In love with motherhood since always, I found it difficult to make my dreams come true, and also some more after I was already a mother.
Since I imagined myself as a mother, in my thoughts everything seemed to be much easier and simpler than it really was, I expected to get pregnant as soon as I wished, but it wasn’t that simple. The first pregnancy was smooth, but my daughter’s birth was very troubled. Joana was born in 2002 with a weight of 2930kg and 45cm, from a very peaceful cesarean delivery but she had already been born with congenital pneumonia due to a broken bag not treated with antibiotics even before delivery.