What is Amniotic Band Syndrome and What is the Treatment?

The name can be easily confused with the so-called amniotic fluid , but in fact, it is a condition considered very rare by medicine. Amniotic band syndrome, also known by doctors as amniotic band syndrome, is a little-known occurrence, but it causes a lot of concern when diagnosed. Therefore, we will explain better about this condition, the symptoms, main causes and which treatments are indicated.

What is Amniotic Band Syndrome?

Amniotic band syndrome is when pieces and residues of tissue similar to that of the amniotic pouch adhere and wrap around fetal limbs during gestational development, forming a band, or bandage around arms, legs and other parts of the body . As a result, the blood is unable to circulate properly in these areas of the body, which can cause malformations and even not fully develop, such as fingers not forming.

Depending on the location of the body where the amniotic band was formed, it is possible that no members of the body are fully born. If formed in the face area, the cleft lip or cleft palate may occur . The amniotic band syndrome always occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy , when the fetus is already formed.

Causes of Amniotic Band Syndrome

The causes of amniotic band syndrome are still studied by medicine and that is why there are still only theories that can explain it. The first theory is based on the initial development in the first trimester, where the baby inside the amniotic pouch has contact inside it with a viscous liquid called a celoma, much like egg white. During this period, due to some factors, the rupture of this bag may occur , breaking this amniotic membrane (it is not a rupture of the amniotic bag , it is only the membrane), and when the fetus moves, it can place the foot, hands or any other part of the body. body “in this hole” and stick to the body.

As the baby progresses and the baby grows, this stuck area stops receiving the blood properly , causing incorrect development. In some cases it is possible to check some structural parts of the body stuck together on the ultrasound, but at the beginning it is possible that when moving, the fetus will be able to move and get rid of what is stuck.

The second theory studied indicates that it is possible that the amniotic band syndrome is related to bleeding that can occur inside the uterus. If bleeding occurs for some reason and that blood clots, it may happen that the baby is stuck or a member of this clot, restricting movement and development as it should. Another theory is the presence of very strong uterine contractions that can cause partial detachment in the placenta .

No theories were found that relate the amniotic band syndrome to hereditary or genetic factors. But it has been observed that women in conditions of drug use such as crack, heroin and cocaine are more likely to have the syndrome.

Is it a Severe Syndrome?

Obviously, receiving a diagnosis of this is hopeless for parents. However, it is important to note that each case must be carefully evaluated in order to be aware of the degree of the syndrome and which parts were affected or not. The syndrome is quite unusual, so it is considered a rare syndrome, but in general it does not pose great risks to the baby .

The condition can cause some injury to the baby’s body, such as one little finger or a slightly smaller limb than the other, but in a very general way, the chances of affecting the other parts of the body more rigorously are very small.

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How is the Diagnosis of Amniotic Band Syndrome Made?

As it is a gestational occurrence, which usually happens in the first trimester, the diagnosis is made by means of a morphological ultrasound exam and, if necessary, a transvaginal one for complementation. The from the 12th week of pregnancy can already be detected any complications caused by the syndrome and offer a follow closer to close the diagnosis in advance.

In the doppler ultrasound examination, it is possible to visualize through a complete body mapping to observe if there is any impairment in blood flow, anywhere, less than it may be.

 

Amniotic Band Syndrome Treatments

The sooner it is discovered, the less the commitment will be. This is one of the main factors of extreme importance to make an adequate prenatal care and mainly to perform the morphological ultrasound in the first trimester.

When amniotic band syndrome is found after the fetus already has a compromised limb, unfortunately it is not possible to do anything. But when the condition is diagnosed early in pregnancy, a procedure to remove adhesions can be performed, allowing the fetus to develop properly.

In this type of procedure, it is necessary for the mother to receive spinal anesthesia and be aware that it is a very complex and high-risk procedure for the baby. During the procedure, there are risks of rupture of the amniotic pouch and termination of pregnancy.

Due to the high risks, this method is only recommended when it is found that the amniotic band is involving a large part of the fetus’ body, such as an entire arm or leg. In this case, the doppler exam is essential to observe the blood flow of the involved limb and to study the possibilities and the real need for the procedure.

It is very important to say that when the presence of an amniotic band adhering to the fetus’ body is not always a sign that it will have malformations. Just as not every membrane sign seen during an ultrasound scan is a sign of amniotic band syndrome. It is very common for specialists to confuse the amniotic band membrane with other residues, such as residues from another gestational sac, in case it was a twin pregnancy that did not succeed. That is why it is essential to prenatal care and perform all tests requested by the doctor.

In the vast majority of cases, the most suitable treatment is after childbirth , where malformations are corrected through reconstructive procedures. Only in more severe cases and with greater impairment than the surgical procedure during the gestational phase is recommended.

Dr. Alexis Hart
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My name is Dr. Alexis Hart I am 38 years old, I am the mother of 3 beautiful children! Different ages, different phases 16 years, 12 years and 7 years. In love with motherhood since always, I found it difficult to make my dreams come true, and also some more after I was already a mother.

Since I imagined myself as a mother, in my thoughts everything seemed to be much easier and simpler than it really was, I expected to get pregnant as soon as I wished, but it wasn’t that simple. The first pregnancy was smooth, but my daughter’s birth was very troubled. Joana was born in 2002 with a weight of 2930kg and 45cm, from a very peaceful cesarean delivery but she had already been born with congenital pneumonia due to a broken bag not treated with antibiotics even before delivery.

Dr. Alexis Hart

My name is Dr. Alexis Hart I am 38 years old, I am the mother of 3 beautiful children! Different ages, different phases 16 years, 12 years and 7 years. In love with motherhood since always, I found it difficult to make my dreams come true, and also some more after I was already a mother.Since I imagined myself as a mother, in my thoughts everything seemed to be much easier and simpler than it really was, I expected to get pregnant as soon as I wished, but it wasn’t that simple. The first pregnancy was smooth, but my daughter’s birth was very troubled. Joana was born in 2002 with a weight of 2930kg and 45cm, from a very peaceful cesarean delivery but she had already been born with congenital pneumonia due to a broken bag not treated with antibiotics even before delivery.

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